University of South Florida EXP5 1 Representation of Knowledge Discussion – Assignment Help

I’m trying to study for my Psychology course and I need some help to understand this question.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Read and respond to the questions provided below under “Specific Question Prompt Instructions”. Your response must include references to the lecture, powerpoint, and/or text to ensure you have studied the material before you begin applying the material. See the rubric for guidelines regarding the exact manner in which you should reference the material. Your response must be ONE page in length and must be written in essay style consisting of paragraphs. There is no need to refer to the question numbers in your response. See the rubric for guidelines on how you will be graded with regard to length. Find ONE article to support your answer to the questions, and refer to it ANYWHERE in your response and upload the article with your Word document. If you include a quotation, you must explain what your quotation means and why it is relevant. Refer to the rubric to see how you will be graded in reference to incorporating the article within the text of your response. Include a reference page in APA style for each submission. The articles must be 7 to 20 pages long, published within the last 10 years, and peer reviewed. See the rubric for specifics on how you will be graded.

Deliverables:

  1. Submit a Word document via Canvas with your written response. You can keep the original DOC file. No other formats will be accepted.
    NOTE. Be sure to save your file as: EXP5-(LastName).(file extension) (e.g., EXP5-yourlastname.doc)
  2. One article in pdf format. No other format will be accepted. If your file cannot be read, you will not receive points. Links to the .pdf will not be accepted. You must download the article from the website in .pdf format and upload it to the link provided as only .pdf. The written portion of the assignment will be only accepted in .doc, or .docx formats.

SPECIFIC QUESTION PROMPT INSTRUCTIONS

1. Case Study of a Category-Specific Deficit – Fur of the Crocodile and the Mooing Sheep

An important question for knowledge representation is “How are concepts organized?” Collins & Quillian proposed that knowledge could be represented in a hierarchical semantic network. A number of case studies provide support for this notion when deficits are seen for items in one category but not for items in a different category. The following citation is the source for the case study discussed here.

Kolinsky, R., Fery, P., Messina, D., Peretz, I., Evinck, S., Ventura, P., & Morais, J. (2002).

The fur of the crocodile and the mooing sheep: A study of a patient with a category-specific

impairment for biological things. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 19 (4), 301-342.

Please see the attached article: Kolinsky et al 2002.pdf

ER suffered from herpes encephalitis. This resulted in what appears to be anterograde amnesia (much of his autobiographical memory prior to the herpes encephalitis seems to be intact but he is unable to recall new information). In addition to the amnesia, ER apparently has a difficult time recognizing biological items but no problem with non-biological items.

Table 1: Summary of a few of the results from Kolinsky et al. (2002) article. Percent correct naming of different types of images across three categories for patient, “ER,” compared to normal control subjects.

CATEGORY

TYPE OF TASK

Animals

Fruit/Vegetables

Artifacts(non-biological)

Naming Line Drawings

ER

33%

30%

71%

Control Group

98%

97.5%

99%

Naming Photographs

ER

50%

39%

82%

Control Groups

98%

97%

99%

The results indicate a consistent deficit for biological items (animal and fruit/vegetable categories) across a number of different tasks. Performance on artifacts (non-biological [e.g., anchor, alarm clock]) was consistently higher than the other two categories. The one exception to the biological deficit is the ability to recognize various human figures/body parts.

Summary of the case study by Kolinsky et al. (2002):

“We have documented here the case of a patient (ER) who displayed a category-specific deficit in recognizing biological entities. This impairment occurred across a variety of tasks and modalities, including recognition from vision, verbal definition, naming upon definition, drawing from memory, and nonverbal sound recognition. It can be explained by neither a perceptual deficit nor a lexical access deficit.” (p. 331)

Often when ER was presented with a number of different tasks dealing with biological items, he would simply respond that he does not know or does not remember. However, there are times in which his responses consisted of confabulation. Confabulation was evident for biological items for visual and functional probes. The follow quote is confabulation for biological items (the authors noted that he did not do this with the non-biological category).

“The crocodile was thought to have fur … The elephant was admitted to have horns … The ostrich was said to be smaller than a hen, and the rhinoceros smaller than a lion. The giraffe was supposed to have short legs and the deer a long tail.” (pp. 329-330)

Confabulation was evident for responses to nonperceptual characteristics of biological items.

“The lion and the rhinoceros were said to be nondangerous, but the deer to be dangerous ‘for small animals that it may kill.’ The penguin was supposed to live in the forest, and the zebra in cold countries; the mushroom was believed to grow in dry places and to be juicy. The frog was supposed to crawl, the snail to move fast, and the duck not to fly.” (p. 330)

Discussion questions/topics:

  1. Explain the results on the table.
  2. What do the results of this case study suggest about the organization of information in memory?
  3. Why do you think ER confabulated for certain types of information?
  4. What was the goal of the researches when they tested ER with a variety of tasks (e.g., line drawings, pointing). The same deficit seems to appear across a number of different tasks.
  5. What is the relevance of the information obtained from the control group?
  6. Criteria Ratings Pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    Description of article in submission
    3 ptsTwo sentences refer to the article. One sentence distills the article into the main points in the student’s own words OR directly cites exact wording with quotations. The second sentence elaborates on why the article in important or what relevance the article has in the student’s own words. 1.5 ptsOnly one sentence is provided. The sentence is direct quotes and does not fit well in the context of the paragraph. A second sentence is not provided which would describe what the quote means or why it is relevant. 0 ptsNo sentences are included that refer to any article.
    3 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    Description of textbook or PPT in submission
    3 ptsThe student includes a sentence which specifies the location of the content, such as the page number of the book or the powerpoint slide number or specified what Dr. Salnaitis spoke. The sentence also includes content that explains a concept or provides a definition. 1.5 ptsThe content is described, but no reference is made to where the information came from. OR the source information is provided, but the definition is not adequate to understand the student’s meaning. 0 ptsNo reference is made to the book or lecture. The student also proceeds to answer the question without describing the definitions or concepts needed to answer the question. These are left to be assumed by the reader.
    3 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    Length of Submission
    3 ptsThe entire response takes between a full page to two full pages in length using double-spaced, 12 point font in times new roman. 1.5 ptsThe answer is less than a page OR longer than two full pages. The font size and type may have been adjusted to increase or decrease the length of the response. 0 ptsThe answer is only a few lines OR is more than 3 pages long. The font size and type clearly have been adjusted to increase or decrease the length of the response.
    3 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    Comprehension
    3 ptsThe response reflects clear understanding of the concepts and maximal effort to produce a meaningful response. 1.5 ptsThe response is somewhat unclear and requires more elaboration to ensure full comprehension of the concept. Moderate effort is exhibited. 0 ptsThe response reflects a failure to understand the concept and minimal effort.
    3 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style for In-Text Citation: Format and Punctuation
    2 ptsAuthor initials are NOT present in the body of the text or in parentheses, which conforms to APA style. When more than one author is provided, the word “and” is used in between author names IN THE BODY TEXT and the ampersand (i.e., “&”) is provided between author names IN THE PARENTHESES. IF the sentence ends with an in-text citation in parentheses, the period is located AFTER THE CLOSING PARENTHESES. Otherwise, the citation occurs at the beginning of the sentence with no errors. 1 ptsAuthor initials are present in ONE place in the body of the text or in parenthesis. Initials should NOT be in the text; they are only included in the reference page. View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. The ampersand (i.e., “&”) and the word “and” are incorrectly cited in the text and the parentheses, respectively IN ONE LOCATION IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT. When more than one author is provided, the word “and” should be between author names IN THE BODY TEXT and the ampersand (i.e., “&”) should be provided between author names IN THE PARENTHESES. View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. IF the sentence ends with an in-text citation in parentheses, the period is located IN FRONT OF THE CITATION IN PARENTHESES. Instead, the period should be AFTER THE CLOSING PARENTHESES. This error occurs ONCE. 0 ptsAuthor initials are present in MORE THAN ONE place in the body of the text or in parenthesis. Initials should NOT be in the text; they are only included in the reference page. View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. OR NO IN-TEXT CITATION IS PRESENT. The ampersand (i.e., “&”) and the word “and” are incorrectly cited in the text and the parentheses, respectively IN MORE THAN ONE LOCATION IN THE BODY OF THE TEXT. When more than one author is provided, the word “and” should be between author names IN THE BODY TEXT and the ampersand (i.e., “&”) should be provided between author names IN THE PARENTHESES. View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. OR NO IN-TEXT CITATION IS PRESENT. IF the sentence ends with an in-text citation in parentheses, the period is located IN FRONT OF THE CITATION IN PARENTHESES. Instead, the period should be AFTER THE CLOSING PARENTHESES. This error occurs MORE THAN ONCE. OR NO IN-TEXT CITATION IS PRESENT.
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style for In-Text Citation: Title
    2 ptsIF the title is referred to in the body of the text, it is abbutted by quotation marks. Otherwise, the author is correctly cited instead. 1 ptsIF the title is referred to in the body of the text, it is in italics when it should be in quotation marks. View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. 0 ptsNeither the title, nor the author names are referred to in text. OR NO IN-TEXT CITATION IS PRESENT.
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style for In-Text Citations: et al
    2 ptsThe first author’s last name is followed by “et al.” when there are 3 or more authors in the body of the text. If there are fewer than 3, then each subsequent citation beyond the first full citation may employ “et al.” 1 ptsTHE FOLLOWING MISTAKE WAS MADE ONCE: The first citation employed “et al.” when it was not appropriate to do so OR failed to employ “et al.” when it was appropriate to do so. The first author’s last name should be followed by “et al.” when there are 3 or more authors in the body of the text. If there are fewer than 3, then each subsequent citation beyond the first full citation may employ “et al.” View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. 0 ptsTHE FOLLOWING MISTAKE WAS MADE MORE THAN ONCE: The first citation employed “et al.” when it was not appropriate to do so OR failed to employ “et al.” when it was appropriate to do so.The first author’s last name should be followed by “et al.” when there are 3 or more authors in the body of the text. If there are fewer than 3, then each subsequent citation beyond the first full citation may employ “et al.” View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. OR NO IN-TEXT CITATION IS PRESENT.
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style for In-Text Citations: Direct Quotations and Page Numbers
    2 ptsCorrect APA style is used for page numbers. IF direct quotations are used, the in-text citation inlcudes a page number where the information can be obtained. IF direct quotations are not used the page number is not present. Page numbers are correctly included in citations that follow a direct quote (Author, Year, p. #). 1 ptsONE error is present in the APA style for page numbers. IF direct quotations are used, the in-text citation should inlcude a page number where the information can be obtained. IF direct quotations are NOT used the page number should NOT be present. View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. 0 ptsMORE THAN ONE error is present in the APA style for page numbers. IF direct quotations are used, the in-text citation should inlcude a page number where the information can be obtained. IF direct quotations are NOT used the page number should NOT be present. View the feedback to see where you made these errors in your assignment. OR NO IN-TEXT CITATION IS PRESENT.
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style Reference Section: Overall Formatting
    2 ptsThe response is followed by a reference page in which NO ERRORS in APA style are present. The word, “References,” is centered at the top of a separate page. The references are double-spaced. Hanging indent is present. 1 ptsThe response is followed by a reference page in which ONE ERROR in APA style is present. The word, “References,” should be centered at the top of a separate page. The references should be double-spaced. Hanging indent should be present. View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. 0 ptsThe response is followed by a reference page in which MORE THAN ONE ERROR in APA style is present. The word, “References,” should be centered at the top of a separate page. The references should be double-spaced. Hanging indent should be present. View the feedback to see where you made these error in your assignment. OR NO REFERENCE SECTION IS PRESENT
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style Reference Section: Reference for PowerPoint or Video or Textbook
    2 ptsNo errors are made in the reference of the PowerPoint, video, or textbook. 1 ptsONE error is found in referencing the PowerPoint, video, or textbook. The reference for PowerPoint/Video should appear as follows: Salnaitis, C. (2016). The file name of the power point [PowerPoint slides]. A list of slide numbers that were used. Example for this week’s powerpoint: Salnaitis, C. (2016). Introduction to Psychology [PowerPoint slides]. 9-13, 19. The reference for the textbook should appear as follows: Anderson, J. R. (2015). Cognitive psychology and its implications (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. The italics formatting is not showing up in this rubric properly, but both the powerpoint name and the book name should be in italics. View the feedback to see where you made a mistake in your assignment. 0 ptsMORE THAN ONE error is found in referencing the PowerPoint, video, or textbook. The reference for PowerPoint/Video should appear as follows: Salnaitis, C. (2016). The file name of the power point [PowerPoint slides]. A list of slide numbers that were used. Example for this week’s powerpoint: Salnaitis, C. (2016). Introduction to Psychology [PowerPoint slides]. 9-13, 19. The reference for the textbook should appear as follows: Anderson, J. R. (2015). Cognitive psychology and its implications (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. The italics formatting is not showing up in this rubric properly, but both the powerpoint name and the book name should be in italics. View the feedback to see where you made mistakes in your assignment. OR NO REFERENCE SECTION IS PRESENT
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style Reference Section: Italics
    2 ptsThe journal titles, book titles, and volume numbers are italicized. Year is present in parentheses and NOT italicized. Page numbers are present after a comma and are NOT italicized. 1 ptsAt least ONE journal title, book title, or volume number is NOT italicised. Year should be present in parentheses and should NOT be italicized. Page numbers should be present after a comma and should NOT be ialicized.View the feedback to see where you made this error in your assignment. 0 ptsMORE THAN ONE journal title, book title, or volume number is NOT italicised. Year should be present in parentheses and should NOT be italicized. Page numbers should be present after a comma and should NOT be ialicized.View the feedback to see where you made these errors in your assignment. OR NO REFERENCE SECTION IS PRESENT
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    APA Style Reference Section: Author Names and Initials
    2 ptsAuthor names and first initials are provided in the correct order with initials following the author name. Periods follow each initial, and commas are present between names. An ampersand (i.e. “&”) is present between the last two authors. Up to six authors are listed. If there are more than six authors, the first five are listed, followed by “…” and then last author is presented. 1 ptsAt least ONE error is present. Author names and first initials should be provided in the correct order with initials following the author name. Periods should follow each initial, and commas should be present between names. An ampersand (i.e. “&”) should be present between the last two authors. Up to six authors should be listed. If there are more than six authors, the first five should be listed, followed by “…” and then last author should be presented. 0 ptsMORE THAN ONE error is present. Author names and first initials should be provided in the correct order with initials following the author name. Periods should follow each initial, and commas should be present between names. An ampersand (i.e. “&”) should be present between the last two authors. Up to six authors should be listed. If there are more than six authors, the first five should be listed, followed by “…” and then last author should be presented. OR NO REFERENCE SECTION IS PRESENT
    2 pts
    This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome
    Supporting Documents
    2 ptsThe article is uploaded as a separate pdf file (no other form will be accepted). The article is 7 to 20 pages long, published within the last 10 years, and peer reviewed. Used document format (EXP#-#-yourlastname.docx). If the article does not conform to these guidlines, permission has been obtained prior to use of the article due to the article’s relevance to the topic. 1 ptsThe article is uploaded as a separate pdf file (no other form will be accepted). The article fails to conform to ONE of the folloiwng guidelines: is 7 to 20 pages long, published within the last 10 years, and peer reviewed and uses document format (EXP1-yourlastname.doc). 0 ptsThe article is uploaded as a separate pdf file (no other form will be accepted). The article fails to conform to MORE THAN ONE of the following guidelines: is 7 to 20 pages long, published within the last 10 years, and peer reviewed and uses document format (EXP1-yourlastname.doc).
    2 pts
    Total Points: 30
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