SS 238 Abia State Polytechnic Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Discussion – Assignment Help

I need help with a Social Science question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Civic Engagement and Social Movements

It is estimated that the population of the age of 60 and above
in the United States is somewhere between nine and twelve million. I
suggest that the national government retire all who reach that age on a
monthly pension of $200 a month or more, on condition that they spend
the money as they get it.

— Francis Townsend

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, civic
engagement is “the process of working collaboratively with and through
groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interest,
or similar situations to address issues affecting the well-being of
those people. It is a powerful vehicle for bringing about environmental
and behavioral changes that will improve the health of the community and
its members. It often involves partnerships and coalitions that help
mobilize resources and influence systems, change relationships among
partners, and serve as catalysts for changing policies, programs, and
practices” (CDC, 1997, p. 9).

Social movements are an important component of civic engagement.
Social movements are civically engaged groups who wish to affect a
public policy concern. There are three types of social movements:

  • Social movements that advocate a public policy change.
    • Example: The pro-choice movement.
  • Social movements that resist change.
    • Example: the anti-nuclear movement.
  • Social movements that advocate for those without power.
    • Example: American civil rights movement.

Civic engagement and social movements have a long history in America,
even before the birth of the United States. During the colonial era,
British subjects came together at various times to attempt to change the
taxation policies (anti-tax movement) implemented by Great Britain’s
Parliament. Indeed, the American Revolution can also be understood as a
social movement: colonists began to understand and advocate change based
on a new ideology: citizenship.

Social movements within the United States continued post
emancipation. Civically engaged citizens have formed groups throughout
this country’s history in order to affect public policy change.

One specific example of civic engagement and a resulting social
movement are the actions of a 66-year-old physician by the name of
Francis Everett Townsend. In September 1933, he penned a letter to his
local paper. His plan of action called for the government to provide a
pension ($200 dollars) to all retired Americans over the age of 60. This
was during the Great Depression, and it had a great deal of appeal to
older Americans who had few prospects in their declining years. Before
long, “Townsend Clubs” arose around the country, with well over 2
million members. All of this from a single letter to the editor. In
time, FDR would sign the Social Security Act of 1935 into law. Though
not as extensive as what Dr. Townsend had originally proposed, it was a
step forward to provide money to elderly Americans (Kennedy, 1999).

More information about Francis Townsend can be found at the Department of Social Security’s website.

Directions: Using the required, academic readings, and supplemental academic research, please address the following while adhering to the Discussion Board Rubric:

  • Select a specific example of public policy from one of the following fields:
    • Economic policy
      • An example of economic policy is U.S. budget deficit spending.
    • Education policy
      • An example of education policy are the implementation of charter schools.
    • Environmental policy
      • An example of environmental policy is the Clean Air Act.
    • Foreign policy
      • An example of foreign policy is the interplay between civil liberties and the Patriot Act.
    • Healthcare policy
      • An example of healthcare policy is the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare).
    • Welfare policy
      • An example of welfare policy is Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).
  • How did civic engagement and/or a social movement affect a previous or current public policy concern?
    • Was the civic engagement and/or social movement example successful or unsuccessful?
    • What actions accounted for the success or failure?
  • What can we learn from this civic engagement and/or social movement example?
    • Support your examples with information from the text and at least two, additional academic sources.


Jasper, J. M. (2009). Social Movements. In D. Carr (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the life course and human development (Vol. 2, pp. 424-429). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved from

Sarah Oliva posted Dec 3, 2020 3:13 PM

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Food Security

The subject of food insecurity is a worldwide concern involving the
inability to access and purchase food. There are two types of food
insecurity listed under the United States Department of Agriculture. The
first being low food insecurity, which is the lack of variety of food
choices, causing a poor diet. The second, very low food security, show
multiple signs of disrupted eating patterns and reduced food intake
(“USDA”, 2017). Although this is a problem throughout the entire world,
Feeding America has been working to decrease the amount of people
struggling in America by providing many different programs to help.

Feeding America and its efforts to assist families and individuals
in need have been very successful. In the last ten years, food
insecurity levels across the country have reached its lowest in 2018
(“Feeding America”, 2020). They have taken action to feed children,
seniors and families with no cost through multiple programs. Two of the
many programs include, the Mobile Pantry Program and the Senior Grocery
Program. The Mobile Pantry Program works by directly distributing
pre-packed boxes of food to hard-to-reach areas, focusing on high
demanded items that families need most. The Senior Grocery Program
offers seniors nutritious meals that they can easily make at home when
they cannot afford to purchase it and are unable to prepare it (“Feeding
America”, 2020) Feeding America gets its food from grocery
manufacturers, growers, and other retailers. I work at Walmart and I
always see employees in the backroom gathering claimed food for this
organization. When items’ packaging have been minorly damaged but no
damage has been made to the actual product, we will donate them to
Feeding America, which is cool because I didn’t know that the
organization we were donating to had made such of a big difference to
those in need. After seeing what Feeding America has and is still doing,
we can learn that if us individuals could do the same, such as being
watchful of what we waste and donating to those in need, there will be
an even greater increase in food insecurity.


Definitions of Food Security. USDA ERS – Definitions of Food Security. (2017).

Feeding America. (2020, June 3). Study Shows State and Local Food Insecurity Reached Lowest Levels Since its Inception 10 Years Ago. Feeding America.

Shelby Koehler posted Dec 4, 2020 1:26 PM

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Hello class,

this week’s discussion, I have decided to discuss the civil rights
movement/activism lead by disabled individuals that lead to the
development of the American’s with Disabilities Act of 1990.

to the development of the American’s with Disabilities Act (ADA) of
1990, physically and mentally disabled American’s were discriminated
against. Things such as wheelchair ramps or elevators were not mandatory
in public establishments and they could be denied work/housing benefits
because of their disability. Activism for disability rights can be
found among various disability groups dating back to the 1800s (Meldon,
2019). It was activism like this that lead to great strides being made
towards equal rights for disabled Americans. The ADA is considered to be
the greatest legal achievement for the Disability Rights Movement, but
previous public policies addressing the concern of disability
discrimination greatly influenced its development. Self-advocacy groups
and activists took the streets and demonstrated for better disability
rights (Medlon, 2019). Protests could last up to a week at a time,
quickly gathering the attention of local and national businesses and

The civic engagement that took place during the Disability Rights
Movement was successful. The combination of previously existing
disability laws and demonstrations/protests accounted for the success.
Disability activists led many protests and events that eventually led to
the development of the ADA. These protests inspired inclusion and
integration across communities. Activists demonstrated their daily
struggles they faced as disabled American’s in an inaccessible country,
and continued to push for better rights and the heightened need for
accessibility. Through this civic engagement example, we can learn the
importance of small things a non-disabled individual may not typically
think of. Things such as elevators, automatic doors, fair wages,
work/school/housing accommodations, and so many other things that don’t
seem too significant can be the fine line between discrimination and
equal rights for a disabled individual.


P. (2019). Disability History: The Disability Rights Movement.
Retrieved from…

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