I’m working on a psychology discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.
DQ#1 Eating Disorders
Hello class and Professor
The writer believes that when discussing the topic of eating disorders and how it affect the people who suffer from this
type of mental disorder, society can be cruel because the lack of education to better understand what people with this disorder
go through daily. When people are obese and they are out in society the stares alone or the laughing and whispering can make
that individual embarrassed and become ashamed of their size, this can causde a person self-esteem to decrease. The same thing
could happen to someone who suffer from anorexia. According to CDC, (2019) obesity is a common, serious, and costly disease.
From 1999-2000 through 2017-2018, the total number in the population who suffer from obesity increased from 30.5% to 42.4%,
and the total number in the population of severe obesity increased from 4.7% to 9.2%. CDC goes on to state that obseity-related
conditions includes heart disease,stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer that are some of the more serious causes of
preventable, premature death, also the approximate annual medical cost of obesity in the United States was $147 billion in 2008
; and the medical cost for people who suffer from obesity was $1,429 which is greater than normal size people. (CDC, 2019).
According to the medical encyclopedia, (2020) states that anorexia is an eating disorder that causes people lose more
weight that is considered not to be healthy for their age and height. People with this disorder may more of a fear of gaining weight
even when they are considered to be under weight. They may diet or exercise alot to try to lose wieght or they migh go through
a more severe way of not gaining weight, such as making themselves vomit after eating. The article goes on to say that there are
no known causes of anorexia. There can be many factors that can contribute to an eating disorder. A person genes and hormones
may play a role. Something as a person’s attitude can contribute to their disorder. There are some risk factors with anorexia: Being
more worried about their shape and weight, having an eating problem as a child, have low self-esteem that causes depression,
not believing they fit in with society or their culture.(Medical Encyclopedia, 2020). The seriousness about both disorders is that a
person can die if they do not treat this mental health disorder.
To help a person to overcome their eating disorder and helping them to live and live an healthy life the person would need to
be refferred to treatment, where they can get counseling services as well as being palced on some type of healthy diet that they can
be successful with. According to NEDA, (2020) states that treating an eating disorder often includes a combination of psychological
and nutritional counseling, along with medical and psychiatric supervision. Nutritional counseling is also necessary and should
include education about nutritional needs, as well as planning for and monitoring rational choices by the individual patient that is
being treated. There are a variety of treatments that have been proven to be effective in treating eating disorders. One main fact is
the treatment for the eating disorder can be more effective if treated before the disorder becomes chronic, but even people with long-
lasting eating disorders can and do recover if they want recovery. (NEDA, 2020). As a Human Service provider/counselor the writer
would show the client empathy, care, respect, concern, and not to be judgemental to help the client to believe they are in good hands
and build a trusting rapport/relationship. This will help the client to want to seek treatment more, then the writer would sit with the
client and look over different options that they are willing and feel comfortable doing.
CDC, (2019). National center for health statistics (NCHS) data
NEDA feeding hope, (2020). Treatment| National Eating Disorders Association.
U.S. National Library of Medicine, (2020). Anorexia eating disorder.
An Eating Disorder is a diagnosis for people who experience persistent disturbances of eating or eating-related behavior that result in the person’s altering the consumption or absorption of food (Whitbourne, 2020). Although they are called “eating disorders”, these diagnoses affect much more in an individual’s life than eating. Eating Disorders can affect an individual’s physical health, physical functioning, psychosocial functioning, mental health, etc. While there is no definitive cause of eating disorders, researchers have found them to consist of a development course and consist of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological and social factors all play a role in the development of the disease (Richards, 2017). Society plays a role in setting unrealistically expectations of body image through magazines, social media, filters, and photoshop. In addition, culture can also play a role in body image issues, where some countries and cultures value curvier women and other cultures prioritize a low body weight for women. Eating and oppositional/conduct disorders appear to originate early in life. Over the course of adulthood, individuals may develop impulse-control disorders, and late in life, physiological changes may predispose older adults to sleep-wake disorders (Whitbourne, 2020).
Clients can benefit from a multifaceted approach in which clinicians take into account developmental and biopsychosocial influences, but these individuals should also be evaluated medically (Whitbourne, 2020). The most effective treatment includes a multipronged, integrative, and team approach with a wide circle of supports and services. With the client’s permission it can also be beneficial in treatment to include the family in treatment to help support the client when they are home. Researchers working within the biological perspective are increasingly focusing on altered brain activity in individuals with eating disorders, while researchers in the psychological perspective focus on the core psychological components of disturbances in body image; Cognitive-Affective, Perceptual, and Behavioral (Whitbourne, 2020). The main goal of treatment for eating disorders is identifying and changing the individual’s maladaptive assumptions about his or her body shape and weight, as well as reducing the frequency of such maladaptive behaviors as body checking and avoidance (Hrabosky, 2011). Exposure Therapy can be a beneficial method of therapy, as it can help the individuals reduce the negative emotions they experience on a regular basis. Behavioral Therapy methods can help the individual decrease the amount of body checking they engage in. Interpersonal therapy is an empirically supported method that could be used as an alternative to cognitive-behavioral therapy for individuals with binge-eating disorder (Linardon et al., 2017).
The concept of a mind-body connection addresses how our thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and attitudes can positively or negatively affect our biological functioning (Hart, n.d.). Mind-body relationships can help improve people’s physical health by addressing the psychological factors of stress, emotions, behavior patterns, and personality. In addition, clinicians working in behavioral medicine often team up with psychologists and other mental health professionals to help clients learn and maintain behaviors that will maximize their physical functioning (Whitbourne, 2020). Encouraging a mind-body connection in client’s can help them view their body more holistically and mindfully. It is also important to provide psychoeducation to client’s about how their thoughts affect their body and their health. Considering the fact that eating disorders can stem from negative body associations and develop throughout life, providing psychoeducation and therapy that includes mind-body connection can provide significant support.
Hart, P. (n.d.). What is the mind-body connection? Retrieved April 07, 2021, from https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/what-is-the-mind-body-connection
Hrabosky, J. I. (2011). Body image and binge-eating disorder. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 296–304). New York: Guilford Press.
Linardon, J., Fairburn, C. G., Fitzsimmons-Craft, E. E., Wilfley, D. E., & Brennan, L. (2017). The empirical status of the third-wave behaviour therapies for the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 58, 125–140. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2017.10.005
Richards, P. (2017, August 14). How does media impact body image and eating disorder rates? Retrieved April 07, 2021, from https://centerforchange.com/how-does-media-impact-body-image-and-eating-disorder-rates/
Whitbourne, S. K. (2020). Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders (9thed). McGraw Hill. ISBN 9781260500196
DQ#2 Dissociative Disorders
Hello class and Professor
Dissociative Disorder to the writer, is when a person either blocks out places or traumatic events because of the pain from
remembering what happened to them in their past. Some people gain memory loss because they try to bury those events that caused
them pain, and when these behaviors take place in the lives of the people who suffer from this type of disorder, they distance
themselves from others and situations in their lives. According to APA, (2020) states that Dissociative disorders involve problems
with memory, identity, emotion, perception, behavior and sense of self. Dissociative symptoms can possibly interfere with everyday
area of mental functioning (APA, 2020). This description is what makes it hard for a therapist/counselor to diagnose someone with
this disorder because it is hard to find out the root cause of the problem due to the fact that they have locked it away or either forgot
about it, and will not let you know that they are doing that. The different forms of Dissociative disorders are: Dissociative identity
disorder, Dissociative amnesia disorder, and Depersonalization/derealization disorder.
Dissociative identity disorder is when a person becomes overwhelmed with the trauma that happened to them in their life.
According to APA, (2020) states that Dissociative disorder is connected with serious experiences, traumatic events and/or abuse that
occurred in childhood. This disorder use to be called multiple personality disorder (APA, 2020). In a situation like this a person can
display at any given moment the different personality they have established in their life. According to APA, (2020) states that there
are some symptoms that comes with this disorder. The personalities are accompanied by changes in behavior, memory and thinking.
the signs and symptoms may be observed by others and reported by the client/patient. The next is ongoing gaps in memory when
dealing with everyday activities, personal information and/or past traumatic events. The symptoms cause distress or problems in social
occupational or other ares of their life.
The next from is the Dissociative amnesia disorder that has a person to have difficulty recalling important information about
their self due to a severe head injury or another traumatic event in their life. According to Leong, (2019) states that Dissociative amnesia
is generally thought of as the most common dissociative disorder and is listed in the DSM-4 as one or more episodes of inability to recall
personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful situation, that is too extensive in nature to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
The last is the depersonalization/derealization disorder. According to NAMI, (2020) states that this disorder involved ongoing feelings
of detachment from actions, feelings, thoughts and sensations as if they are watching a movie (depersonalization). Sometimes other
people and things may feel like people and things in the world around them do not appear to be real (derealization). A person may
experience depersonalization, derealization or both. Smptoms can last just a matter of moments or return from time to time over the years.
The onset age is 16, although depersonalization episodes can begin anywhere from early to mid childhood. Less than 20% of people with
with this disorder start experiencing episodes after the age of 20. The way the writer will help people that suffer from dissociative disorders
will be to show them compassion and understanding while taking time gradually helping them to remember little by little the trauma of
American Pyschiatric Association, (2020). What are dissociative disorders?
Leong, S. (2019). Dissociative amnesia and DSM-IV-TR Cluster C Personality Traits
National alliance on mental illness, (2020). Dissociative disorders
Home | NAMI: National Alliance on Mental IllnessNAMI, the National Alliance on Mental Illness, is the nation’s largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness.
The dissociative disorder produces disconnection between integrated functions of consciousness and perception. It brings a lack of continuity between thoughts and identity (Whitbourne, 2020). It adversely interferes with daily functioning as affected individuals involuntarily try to escape reality. Some major forms of dissociative disorders include dissociative identity disorder, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization-derealization disorder.
Dissociative identity disorder also called multiple personality disorder, is characterized by the presence of more than one personality state, which is distinct (Whitbourne, 2020). Each identity may have unique characteristics and history. In other words, it is like switching to alternate personalities. Usually, it’s a reaction to trauma. In some cases, the varying personalities within are aware of each other and in some cases, they remain completely unaware (Whitbourne, 2020). The personalities can have varying degrees of presence. Dissociative amnesia is more than just forgetfulness; it is characterized by severe memory loss. The affected individual is unable to recall important personal info. Usually, it is also caused by stress or trauma (Whitbourne, 2020). In rare cases, it involves complete loss of memory. A highlighting component is a dissociative fugue whereby an individual may wander away from life. It may last for a few minutes or hours, and in some cases, it may take years. Another major form is depersonalization-derealization disorder is characterized by an episodic or ongoing sense of detachment(Whitbourne, 2020). One may feel detached from oneself or one may feel a sense of unreality.
The interventions are aimed at integrating alters. Evidence-based treatment methods include hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioral techniques (Whitbourne, 2020). While treating, the clinicians also focus on associated disorders of mood, anxiety, and PTSD. With evidence-based therapies, affected individuals can successfully address major symptoms and improve their ability to lead a productive life. Psychotherapies help clients to gain control over symptoms because it integrates several elements of identity (Paull, 2014). The intensity depends on the coping skills. Hypnosis therapy may help in rapid recovery as people with dissociative disorder’s identities will align and allow the host to be in control. The hypnotic state allows individuals to gather thoughts and memories they might have hidden from their conscious minds (Kluft, 2012). CBT approach is alsohelpful in managing symptoms by preventing relapse in mental health triggers. CBT uses a technique named behavior activation (Kitagawa, 2015), which allows the collaborative effort of the client as well as the therapist to bring forth some positive scenarios that can soothe the client and improve his or her mood. It serves as inhibitors of negativity, thus, reducing life stressors. It also helps in the regulation of emotions. Counselors, while providing these therapies, need to maintain a positive relationship and a strong rapport withclients in order to sense the person’s decompensating stage (Paull, 2014). Clients must be continually empowered so that they do not feel isolated and detached from themselves and their surroundings.
The highlighting challenges regarding dissociative disorders include under-diagnosis and over-diagnosis (Huber, 2012). Most cases are identified in the clinical setting; if the clinicians are not trained properly for the same, they would not be able to diagnose highly dissociated patients. In some cases, it may be over-diagnosed as clinicians may over-interpret diagnostic criteria. Psychotherapy is effective but it is a time-consuming process and is attachment intensive(Gentile, Dillon, & Gillig, 2013). Another challenge includesthe problems related to enmeshment and transference-countertransference. Clinicians may fall into a trap of transference while exercising
disagreeable parts of the personality. “If a dissociated part of a patient identifies intensely with the perpetrator and the counselor attempts to drive out or destroy that part of the personality, then therapy will probably be doomed to failure(Huber, 2012).” On the other hand, if the client acts out intensely, then it raises questions whether psychotherapy makes sense or not.
As a future counselor, this writer would opt for evidence-based psychotherapy and other useful alternative approaches to treatment. “Psychotherapy is the cornerstone of a multidisciplinary treatment plan for dissociative disorders and must be incorporated into the interventional strategy; whether the mode of psychotherapy is supportive or psychodynamic in nature or some combination of various approaches, the treatment must be based on the quality and acuity of the patient’s symptoms (Gentile, Dillon, & Gillig, 2013).” This writer believes that it is imperative to explore other modes of treatment including issues regarding family work, meditation, and modified EMDR.
Gentile, J. P., Dillon, K. S., & Gillig, P. M. (2013).Psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for patients with a dissociative identity disorder. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3615506/
Huber, M. (2012). Challenges in the treatment of complex dissociative disorders. Retrieved from https://www.michaela-huber.com/files/vortraege/vortrag-challenges-michaela-huber-2012.pdf
Kitagawa, N. (2015). The practice of behavioral activation in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Seishin shinkeigakuzasshiPsychiatria et neurologia Japonica, 117(1), 26-33.
Kluft, R. P. (2012). Hypnosis in the treatment of dissociative identity disorder and allied states. South African Journal of Psychology, 42(2), 146-155.
Paul, A. E. (2014). Therapists’ experiences treating clients with a dissociative identity disorder. Retrieved from https://scholarworks.smith.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2813&context=these
Whitbourne, S. K. (2020). Abnormal psychology: Clinical perspectives on psychological disorders (9th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
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