I’m working on a psychology question and need an explanation to help me learn.
Dear Professor and Classmates,
The first signs that start to come about typically include hearing, seeing tasting and/or believing things that others don’t (Early Psychosis and Psychosis | NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2020). Other early on signs include one having persistent and unusual thoughts or beliefs that one can’t put to the side despite the fact that others don’t believe them. Having both strong and inappropriate emotions are also a good tell all or not having any emotions at all. One will also slowly begin to stop taking care of themselves, not wanting to see their friends and family as much as well as not caring about the relationships they have formed in their life thus far. Lastly, they will usually have difficulties thinking and/or concentrating. However, there are two main symptoms which include hallucinations and delusions. A hallucination is when an individual is either seeing, hearing or feeling something that isn’t actually there (Early Psychosis and Psychosis | NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2020). Some examples of common hallucinations is hearing voices and seeing glimpses of things that aren’t actually there. Then there is delusions which are strong beliefs one has that is not consistent with their culture. These delusions tend to not be true and to others they are irrational. Examples of common delusions include thinking one is god, or that they’ve been given a mission to complete, etc.
For diagnosising whether one is having a psychotic episode or not there are some steps that need to be taken and things that need to be looked into. For instance whether or not there is a history of mental illness in the family. Therefore, genetics need to be taken into consideration because they contribute a lot to the development of psychosis. A mental health professional should also talk about and look into the patients history. They should take note of any sort of trauma their patient has been through. For a traumatic event or any sort of trauma factors into whether or not one will end up experiencing psychosis. If a counselor is concerned with whether or not their client is currently experiencing a psychotic episode they should have their patient be teseted and see if they are currently on any drugs or other substances. Also, they should ask them if they have ever taken any illegal drugs or substances in the past and/or currently. Another thing that should be looked into is one’s physical illness and/or injury background. Traumatic brain injuries and other physical illnesses and injuries can at times cause one to have psychosis. Lastly, the should look into their past mental health records as well as talk to the patient themselves about whether or not they have been diagnosed with a mental illness. This is due to the fact that psychosis is often a symptom of other mental illnesses. In terms of diagnostic critera, a mental health professional should look into and be made aware of all of these factors and see what correlates with their patient. For psychosis is a symptom not an illness.
As for treatment options, there are quite a few. There is case management, family support, family education, psychotherapy, medication management, supported education, supported employment and peer support. As a future mental health professional, the writter would definetly use all of these treatment options. For such a severe symptom, it has a huge impact on a lot of aspects of one’s life. All of these aspects need to be taken into account and we have a duty to make the clients life better and liveable. Considering psychosis is a symptom to typically very severe mental illnesses, it is vital to educate the family as to what the illness is, what it means for the patient and them, what to expect and how to adapt and cope with what will now be the new norm. Psychotherapy is also a really good option just to see where the clients head space is at and learn as much as one can about how their symptoms are affecting their lives and how to help them manage and cope with their new life. With these types of diagnosis’, one usually has to take medication to help them cope with the hallucinations and delusions they’re experiencing. As well as anti-depressants to help aleviate depression and anxiety.
As a counselor, if they were to be concerned with their client having a psychotic episode, the writer would let the sessions flow at the clients own pace. The writer wouldn’t bring up anything, but let the client freely talk about whatever comes to mind. For the writer wouldn’t want to scare or discomfort them. The writer would be well aware that their thoughts and feelings might scare them. The writer will be very calm and patient and ask the patient what they feel like would help them. With this, the writer would constantly reassure them that they are here no matter what and will help and support them throughout the entire process.
Early Psychosis and Psychosis | NAMI: National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2020). NAMI. https://www.nami.org/About-Mental-Illness/Mental-Health-Conditions/Psychosis
Psychosis is the state at which an individual has a false perception of reality. Hallucinations and delusions characterize it. The various psychotic symptoms include having difficulty concentrating, abnormal sleeping patterns, fear, and anxiety, having a lot of suspicion towards others around them, withdrawing themselves from friends and family, and having a depressed mood (Fusar‐Poli et al., 2017). As a counsellor, when handling a patient having psychotic episodes, I would first ensure they are comfortable around me and assure them that I understand them while maintaining the ethical issues in the health worker-patient relationship. In choosing the treatment options, psychotherapy is the best option. By applying psychotherapy, I would then make every effort to help them have greater insight and understanding of their condition. Being aware of their situation would enhance therapy.
Fusar‐Poli, P., McGorry, P. D., & Kane, J. M. (2017). Improving outcomes of first‐episode psychosis: an overview. World Psychiatry, 16(3), 251-265.
As many other disorders of the brain, schizophrenia can be just as elusive as any other and it has been determined that even with numerous studies of the brain and its functions, it continues to be quite a challenge to figure out for the most part. Schizophrenia is another psychotic disorder that can define a person quite easily and the purpose of this paper is to discuss the diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, natural history, methods of diagnosis, management of the disorder, risk factors, the causative factors, the nervous system structures, neuro-pathways, neurotransmitters, and receptors involved, as well as the future of diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. Schizophrenia, “a psychotic disorder of unknown origin that is characterized by the disorganization of associations, producing disconnected thoughts, words, and emotions” (Wilson, 2013, section 12.4). Although the definition of schizophrenia includes the word psychotic, it is not exactly just a psychosis, it is more specified and is actually one of many psychotic syndromes and labels that are given to people when there is no explanation of symptoms that is not caused by drug intoxication or other medical conditions (Wilson, 2013). According to the American Psychiatric Association (2013), the DSM-V expresses the criteria for diagnosis requires a decline in functioning and any of two other symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or behavior, blunted mood, or apathy, also including that all other possible organic causes of psychosis is ruled out. Although the DSM-V lists five types of the disorder, such as paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, residual, and undifferentiated, for purposes of research there are two categories used, regarding positive symptoms and negative symptoms. The positive symptoms consist of the behaviors in schizophrenics that most normal others do not have, such as disturbed thinking, hallucinations, delusions, and movement disorders, in addition, thoughts are loosely connected, such as what one would experience with dementia. The negative symptoms are the diminished functioning, such as blunted mood, poverty of speech, being unable to experience pleasure, apathy, poor insight and judgment, and inattention. Studies and reports have shown that people with this disorder do not just show the positive and negative symptoms separately, but rather simultaneously and these symptoms come from different areas of the brain (Wilson, 2013). The epidemiology of schizophrenia, according to Jibson (2012), indicates that this disorder occurs all over the world and the number of new cases and diagnoses are about one percent internationally and about 1.5 per 10,000 people. This disorder is more common in males and women have mostly diagnosed later in life than men, however, for men with this diagnosis, the prognosis is less favorable (Jibson, 2012). The way the World Health Organization (2013) translates this disorder is that this illness affects about seven per one thousand of the adult population, mostly in the age group 15-35 years.
Some of the risk factors for schizophrenia include prenatal nutritional deprivation by means that there were elevated levels of homocysteine in mothers of schizophrenics in their trimester of pregnancy and the possibility of a very low level of vitamin D in early age. Prenatal infections have shown some promise to increase risk factors to the disorder, those such as influenza, rubella, and toxoplasma gondii, and possibly even from herpes simplex virus type 2. Pregnancy and birth complications, such as antepartum hemorrhage, diabetes, rhesus incompatibility, preeclampsia, low birth weight, congenital malformations, reduced head circumference, uterine atony, asphyxia, and emergency caesarean section may all contribute to increased risk. Interestingly, studies have shown that advanced paternal age may also contribute to the factors. Other studies have also indicated that the greater the exposure to cannabis, the greater the risk of developing schizophrenia (McGrath & Susser, 2009).
The exact causes of schizophrenia have yet to be discovered, however, researchers have come to a hypothesis that a combination of physical, genetic, psychological, and environmental factors all play a major role in the development of the disorder. The dopamine hypothesis has gained the most attention, which shows an imbalance of dopamine activity in the brain and this has been confirmed due to observations of the neuroleptic drugs that have been used to treat the disorder. The dopamine activity seems to be diminished in the prefrontal cortex and elevated in the subcortical brain regions (Wilson, 2013). Another hypothesis is the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia, where it is speculated that some people who may be predisposed to develop the disorder may also have a biological weakness that makes them more vulnerable to the effects of stress. It is determined that stress causes a release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex, which in turn produces a large amount of dopamine in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Take the external factors, i.e.: prenatal/perinatal insult and psychosocial stress and apply those to the neural mechanisms, i.e.: the hippocampal structure/function and the HPA activation/cortisol release, which work in conjunction and causes an activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which then leads to the behavioral outcome of schizophrenia symptom onset and exacerbation (Wilson, 2013). Structural studies using images from MRI’s of the brain for schizophrenia have determined some differences within the brain of those with the disorder and those without it. According to these studies, it appears that there are enlarged third and lateral ventricles and the size of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus are considerably smaller than other brain images of others without schizophrenia.
Wilson, J.F. (2013). Biological basis of behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing
World Health Organization. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/schizophrenia/en/
McGrath, J., & Susser, E. (2009). Retrieved from https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2009/190/4/new-directions-epidemiology-schizophrenia
Dear Professor and Classmates,
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental illnesses that there is. There is quite a lot of diagnostic criteria that needs to be met in order for one to be diagnosed with this disorder. The first criteria is that the individual has two or more of the five symptoms. Also, that these symptoms have been present have been present for a significant amount of time during a one month period (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Lastly, for this to be met, the individual must have at least one of the first three symptoms. The symptoms are delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behvaior and/or negative symptoms (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The second piece of criteria that needs to be met is that these symptoms have caused the individual to have trouble with their level of functioning in one or more of the main areas of their life. This could include self care, work, school, relationships, etc. These disturbances have been going on for a significant portion of time.The third piece of criteria is that there has been ongoing and continuous signs of the disturbance that has persisted for at least six months. Within this six month time frame, there has been at least one month of the individual experiencing symptoms that match up with criteria a. Also, during this time stretch, the individual may have periods of prodromal or residual symptoms as well. Throughout these periods, the signs of the disturbance may be seen only bt negative symptoms or two symptoms from the criteria a. The fourth bit of criteria that needs to be taken into consideration and met is the disturbances the individual is experiencing isn’t due to any other disorder. The fifth bit of criteria is that the disturbance isn’t due to physiological effects of a substance or other medical condition. Lastly, the last bit of criteria is if the individual has a history of autism spectrum disorder or some other sort of communication disorder. If this is the case, then the diagnosis of schizophrenia is due to the individual having delusions or hallucinations in addition to all the other required symptoms of schizophrenia. Also, all of the symptoms have been going on for at least one month. As for specifying the severity rating criteria, there are a few things that need to be taken into account. One being the severity is rated by a quantitative assessment. This assessment focuses on the primary symptoms of psychosis. Each and every single symptom is rated for how severe it is currently impacting the individual. The scale ranges from 0 to 5. Zero meaning the symptom isn’t present, to five being very much present and severe.
Both nature and nurture factor into the onset of schizophrenia. Nurture because there is a correlation between which season one is born in and one having schizophrenia. It has been very likely that those born in late winter, early spring and certain times throughout the summer have a lesser degree of the disease. Also, there is a correlation between children who grew up in urban environements as well as being in some minority ethnic groups and having schizophrenia (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). As for genetics, there is a strong relationship between certain genetic factors in determining one’s risk for developing schizophrenia. A majority of those with the disorder, tend to have no family history of anyone having any sort of psychosis. Another thing that could trigger the onset of schizophrenia is one having pregnancy or birth complications with either hypoxia or being older at the age of giving birth. These situations cause one to be at a higher risk of having a child who will end up developing schizophrenia. Lastly, there are other prenatal/perinatal adversities of which include stress, malnutrition, etc that have also been linked to schizophrenia. However, it is important to not that a majority of the babies that have been born with these risk factors have later on not developed the disorder.
There are a few different treatment options for those with schizophrenia. One major one being a combination of psychological treatment and medication. Medication usually includes mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and antidepressants. The antidepressants are prescribed in order to alleviate and manage the individual’s depression and/or anxiety. Another option is teaching the individual about their illness. This could include what it is, what to expect and how to manage/cope with it. It is important for these individuals to have a good support system. Typically, the whole family will be included throughout the therapy process. This way, they are also educated and know how to best help the individual through the entire process. With this being said, they will also need to get some form of therapy. This way they have someone they can talk to, trust and confide in. The mental health professional will also help them cope with their new life and how to manage their symptoms. They will also help the individual plan and coordinate their care outside of therapy. This is called case management, which also will help them find jobs and help them with school by looking for certain programs that are understanding and accomodating for people with severe mental illnesses. There are a few different types of therapy that would best help those with schizophrenia. These types of therapy include, cognitive behaviorual, psychoeducation, electroconvulsive and cognitive remediation. CBT is used to help the individual talk through their struggles and symptoms. Also, to learn more about what is going on with them and to comfort them. Cognitive remediation is for those who have trouble with thinking, attention span, memory and even organization skills (Treatment of Schizophrenia, 2020). This type of therapy also helps these individuals work on socializing and interacting with others. Psychoeducation helps individuals and their friends and family understand the illness in its entirety. Lastly, ECT is for those who have severe symptoms and tends to be a last case scenario. Any biological treatment for schizophrenia include prescribed drugs/medications that consist of neuroleptics. Neuroleptics is a type of drug that depresses an individual’s nerve functions.
The stereotype that individual’s with schizophrenia are dangerous perpetuate the stigma associated with mental health in many ways. Through movies, television shows, media in general, there tends to be a large spread of false or eggagerated information. This leads people to make assumptions and base their opinions off of things that aren’t even true. With little to no education about the mental illness, it is very easy for one to see or hear something in relation and simply just form an opinion based off of that. This to spreads false information.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
Treatment of schizophrenia. (2020). RANZCP. https://www.yourhealthinmind.org/mental-illnesses-disorders/schizophrenia/treatment
DQ#3 Personality Disorder
Hello class and Professor
Before the writer answer what are the difference between cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C, the writer first need to understand
what does personality disorders mean. This mental health disorder affect the way people think, behave, and understand. According to
White, (2020) states that a persomnality disorder is a mental health condition that affects the ways that a person think, behaves, and
relate to others. These disorders can lead to significant distress and, in many situations, harmful coping strategies. The National
Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggest that around 9.1% of people in the United States meet the criteria for a personality disorder.
Healthcare proffessionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), to help diagose
mental health disorders. The DSM-5 identifies threee main clusters of personality disorders: Cluster A: People with this type of
personality disorder behave in a way that other people consider unusual or essentric. The three disorders that fit under cluster A disorder
are: paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorder. Cluster B: People with this type has difficulties regulating their emotions
and behavior. Other people may consider their behavior dramatic, emotional, or erratic. The four cluster B disorders are: antisocial,
borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic.
Cluster C: People behave in anxious os aviodant ways. The three cluster C disorders are: avoidant dependent, and obsessive-
compulsive personality disorders. (White, 2020). People with a personality disorder are most likely to experience other mental health
disorders and conditions, such as anxiety, mood disorder, including depression, or substance use disorders (SUD). People who are
addicted to drugs and alcohol usually develop cluster C becuase they use to cover up reality, pain, and the feelings the pain causing them
in their life. The personality disorder that the writer chose to discuss kind of fit all three clusters in a way when you think about it. It is
Borderline Perosnality. The National Institute of Mental Health, (2016) states that borderline personality disorder is an illness marked by
an ongoing pattern of varifying moods, self-image, and behavior.These systems often result in impulsive actions and problem in relationships.
People with borderline personality disorder may experience intense episodes of anger, depression, and anxiety that can last from a few hours
to days. (NIMH, 2016). This disorder also can have a person with this type of personality disorder to disregard the rights and needs of other
which can leads them to a life of crime and consequences, Because this personality disorder affect a person’s thoughts and behaviors the
treatment that the writer would use is the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This therapy helps to redirect a person’s thoughts so they could
see situations from a different viewpoint. This will help to change the way they behave.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, (2016). Schizophrenia (NIH Publication No. 15-3517) Retrieved
White, M. (2020). What to know about cluster A, B, and C personality disorders.
Hello Professor and class
Cluster A characteristics of personality disorder include odd and eccentric behavior (Whitbourne, 2020). Symptoms of this cluster include feelings of being different, not being likeable, not fitting in with their family, friends and avoidinginterpersonal relationships (Whitbourne, 2020). Some personality disorders that are in this cluster include schizoid personality disorder with individuals havinglimited range of emotional experience and have feelings of wanting to be by themselves (Whitbourne, 2020). Paranoid personality is where individuals are extremely suspicious of others and always have their guard up (Whitbourne, 2020). Schizotypal personality disorder includes vulnerability to developing a full psychosis if challenged with a stressful situation that may challenge their coping skills (Whitbourne, 2020).Cluster B includes dramatic or emotional erraticbehavior, acting impulsively and having inflated views of themselves (Whitbourne, 2020). These individuals display behavior that lack regards to legal standards (Whitbourne, 2020). Cluster C symptoms include clients that don’t want much attention draw to them and is different from cluster B due to each disorder having unique qualities. Some symptoms of this cluster include clinging to other people, feelings of lacking social skills or no desirable qualities at all (Whitbourne, 2020).
Some ethical considerations providers should have when dealing with those with a personalitydisorder is the dimensional rating system helping or hurting the ability to accurately diagnosing an individual with maladaptive qualities (Whitbourne, 2020). Clients cultural, ethic and social background should be considered as well (APA, 2013).
This writer feels that borderline personality disorder has characteristics of cluster A B and C. Borderline symptoms include impulsive actions, challenges with relationships, intense times with anger, and depression that may last from hours to days (NIMH, 2016). Patients that have history of sexual and physical abuse or those that experience lost early in age may be more vulnerable to border line personality disorder (NIMH, 2016). There is also a high chance that family members suffer from mood disorder or substance abuse amongst family members (NIMH, 2016). Very often the parent of the client displays symptoms of depression erratic behavior or have character problems (NIMH, 2016). Psychotherapy is the first line of treatment for those with this disorder. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) includes mindfulness techniques to support acceptance, awareness and attentiveness to current emotional state (NIMH, 2016). Cognitive behavioral therapy works towards assisting patients with changing core beliefs and underlining perceptions of themselves including range of mood.
This author would consider and has worked with those who are diagnosed with a personality disorder as this writer feels that this populations is challenging and rewarding at the same time as symptoms range can be so different from each other. This writer feels that this influences the provider to work harder and more ethically due to the various symptoms within this disorder. This author would utilize DBT as this writer has had some training in this treatment modality through doing chain analysis with patients after a crisis.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (2016). Borderlinepersonality disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/borderline-…
Whitbourne, S. K. (2020). Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders (9thed). McGraw Hill.
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