Post University Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders Discussion – Assignment Help

I’m stuck on a Psychology question and need an explanation.

DQ#1 Research

Lucinda R
Hello Professor,

Research is a way to find out detailed facts about unanswered concerns in which one is trying to discover facts. A disadvantage of correlation research is that if not careful, an unmeasured variable can influence the results (Whitbourne, 2020). The disadvantage, Correlation research can only reveal a relationship of the hypothesis because it does not guarantee that the result determines the outcome. Correlation design seeks to explore the relationships that exist between variables that they can not experimentally manipulate (Whitbourne, 2020). The advantage of correlational research is that it allows researchers to collect much more data than experiments. When conducting research on clients with psychological disorders, this writer finds that the method she would use largely depends upon the setting she is conducting research in. This writer would prefer to use a survey as a research method. According to Whitbourne (2020), surveys are a research tool that is used to gather information from a particular population of the same representation where participants are asked to answer questions about a particular topic of concern.

Reference:

Whitbourne, S. K. (2020). Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders (9thed). McGraw Hill. ISBN 9781260500196

Korinn T

According to Whitbourne, Correlation Design is a study in which researchers test the relationships between variables that they cannot experimentally manipulate (2020). In a positive correlation all scores increase, while in a negative correlation one score increases while the other decreases. Sometimes there is no correlation between two variables or scores, but it doesn’t exactly mean that one variable causes another. It simply means that the two variables are associated somehow. However, the defining feature of correlational research is that the two variables are measured, not manipulated, and this is true regardless of whether the variables are quantitative or categorical (Chiang et. al., 2015). This writer found it interesting that correlation research only uncovers a relationship but it cannot provide a conclusive reason for why there’s a relationship (Quizlet, n.d.). One disadvantage of correlational research is that a correlational relationship between two variables is occasionally the result of an outside source, so we have to be careful and remember that correlation does not necessarily tell us about cause and effect (SWOC, n.d.). While correlation design can help identify connections amongst variables, it cannot create data or determine which variable is responsible for influencing the other. Another downfall of correlation design is that it can be very time consuming and there is a risk for interference from other extraneous variables (Gaille, 2020). An advantage of Correlation Designs is how it allows researchers to determine the strength and direction of a relationship so that later studies can narrow the findings down and, if possible, determine causation experimentally (Quizlet, n.d.). Correlational research allows researchers to collect much more data than experiments, and there are two methods of data collection that can be utilized; naturalistic observation and/or archival data. Correlational Design results can be very applicable to daily functioning as well as helping determine the direction and strength of each relationship (Gaille, 2020).

As a future human services professional, this writer would likely be most comfortable and effective in utilizing Surveys and/or Case Studies when working with a client diagnosed with a psychological disorder. A Survey is research tool used to gather information from a sample of people considered representative of a particular population, in which participants are asked to answer questions about the topic of concern (Whitbourne, 2020). This writer would likely utilize surveys across a variety of psychological disorders in order to possible group diagnosis, symptoms, psychosocial stressors, or environmental factors together and attempt to identify patterns. A Case Study is when a therapist studies and describes the cases of members of a family who share the same unusual disorder (Whitbourne, 2020). This method can give the therapist an opportunity to study closely, observe, and report on a possibly rare case or to record how the disorder may have changed over the course of treatment.

References

Chiang, I.; Jhangiani, R.; P. Price. (2015). Correlational Research. In 1240637195 920363027, Research methods in psychology, 2nd Canadian Edition (p. Chapter 7). BCcampus.

Gaille, L. (2020, January 17). 12 advantages and disadvantages Of CORRELATIONAL research studies. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://vittana.org/12-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-correlational-research-studies

South Wales Orienteering Club, (SWOC). (n.d.). LIMITATIONS OF CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://swoc.org.uk/phtje6/a7c4c3-limitations-of-correlational-research

Whitbourne, S. K. (2020). Abnormal Psychology: Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders (9thed). McGraw Hill. ISBN 9781260500196

DQ#2 Etiology of Abnormal Behavior

Tanya W

Hello Professor and class

There are many etiologies regarding abnormal behavior. This writer feels there are parts of several etiologies this author agrees with and does notagree with. This author mostly agrees with the cognitive model which describes abnormal behavior to be rooted in how people think and perceivethe world (Range,2014). This includes misinterpreting one’s experience and intent of others (Range, 2014). Human beingsare seen as thinking organisms and abnormal behavior comes from individuals that have unrealistic or false assumptions about an experience (Range, 2014). An example of this could be someone who lost their home. One person may be able to stay with a family member or friend and think nothing of the issue. Another person may not have any one to help them and lash out and become angry which may lead to anxiety. It is not the event that occurred that supports the anxiety it is what the person believed about the event. The irrational thought caused the abnormal behavior (Range,2014). Drawing conclusion out of context is also seen in the cognitive model (Range,2014). This author feels that this has been seen when trying to convey information to a consumer and they take it as you are trying to be negative or respond to the information negatively because of how they perceived it. Overgeneralizing and dwelling on the negative when there is positive to think about are cognitive distortions seen in the cognitive model (Range, 2014). This author has experience consumers take one small negative incident and apply it to other areas of their life where it does not apply or feel that they are going to have the same result from that issue no matter how much effort they put into it. Maladaptivethinking is seen as the cause of abnormal behavior is the cognitive model has been criticizedor paying too much attention to the cognitive process and not enough attention on the root cause (Range, 2014).

Reference

Range, L. M. (2014). Abnormal psychology. Salem Press Encyclopedia ofHealth.https://postu.idm.oclc.org/login?auth=prodbb&url=h…

Darren E

Hello class and Professor

When discussing the etiologies of abnormal behaviors the cause of abnormal behavior that the writer most agree with is

the behavioral model. The writer believes that for the most part people behaviors are molded from what they learn within their

environment, whether it is a result of a positive consequence or a negative consequence. Some lessons are directly taught to the

individual, then some times it can come from what that person see happening to others in their environment. According to

Range, L.M. (2014) states that American pyschologists John Watson and B.F.Skinner– emphasizes the role of environment in

developing abnormal behavior. According to this model, people develop abnormal behavior in the same ways they develop normal

behavior, by learning from positive and negative consequences they either experience directly or observe happening to someone

else. What things may mean to them, expectations, values, and role models further influence what they are being taught. In the

behavioral model a person engaging in abnormal behavior has a different reinforcement history from that of others (Range, L.M., 2014).

The reinforcement can come from people places or things to help keep a person focused and motivated to stay on their path of a

developing a positive lifestyle. According to Range, L.M., (2014) states that behavioral model advocates a careful investigation of the

environmental conditions in which people display abnormal behavior. Some scientist search for factors that reinforce or encourage

the repetition of abnormal behaviors. It helped people to realize how their fears become associated with specific situations and the

role that reinforcement plays in the origin and maintenance of inappropriate behaviors. However, this model ignores the evidence of

genetic and biological factors playing a role in some disorders. The argue to this model is that some feel like we as humans have the

ability to make choices from “free will” (Range, L.M., 2014). Abnormal behvior can be caused by a variety of situations in a person’s

life. For example, a person can be molested as a child and grow up becoming the molester, or people can suffer from a traumatic event

that has them scarred for the rest of their life, which effects their behvavior. According to Page, J.D., (1947) states that there are many

varieties of mental deficiencies,psychoneuroses, psychoses, and antisocial personalities, and each varities tends to have an independent

etiology. It is not a question of what is the cause of mental deficiency, psychoneuroses, psychosis, and anti behavior, but rather what is

the cause of each specificclinical type included under these general headings (Page, J.D., 1947). What the writer like about the behavioral

model of abnormal behavior is the fact that before we reach the age where we realize we have choices, our behaviors are develops from

what we learn.

References

Page, J.D. (1947). General causes of abnormal behaviors. APA PsycNet. https://www.psycnet.apa.org

Range, L. M. (2014). Abnormal psychology. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health. https://postu.idm.oclc.org/login?auth=prodbb&url=http://search.ebscohost.com.postu.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=93872177&site=eds-live&scope=site

DQ#3 Stigma

Darren E

Hello class and Professor

Stigma can be very hurtful in many ways. People who suffer from psychological problems in their life, already have an

disadvantage in life and being accepted by others in society, and not being judged for their disorder. APA, (2020) states that

stigma, prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness can be subtle or it can be obvious–but no matter the

magnitude, it can lead to harm. People with mental illness are marginalized and discriminated against in various ways, but

understanding what that looks like and how to address and eradicate it can help. When society lack the education needed to

understand exactly what mental illness mean and the effect it has on people, including their loveones people will place stigma

on those who suffer from psychological problems out of ignorance to the fact. This has been happenong for many, many years.

During research the APA, (2020) found different types of stigma, the first being public stigma-involves the negative or discriminatory

attitudes that others have about mental illness, self stigma-when the negative attitudes, including internalized shame, that people

with mental illness have about their own condition, and institutional stigma-involving policies of government and private

organizations that intentionally or unintentionally limit opportunities for people with mental illness.

In the past years when mentall illness first became recognized in the world, society viewed people with mental illnesses as

being different than the rest of society and calling them names like, retarted, crazy, insane, sick, and hospitals would throw them

in assylums away from society while pumping them full of medication that made their appearance look different than everyone

else in society. People would rather label those with a mental health disorder instead of learning about the problem and helping

to get into the solution. According to Corrigan & Watson, (2002) states that many people with serious mental illness are challenged

doubly. On one hand, they struggle with the sysmptoms and disabilities that result from the disease. On the other hand, they are

challenged by the stereotypes and prejudice that results from misconceptionsabout mental illness.. As a result of both, people with

mental illness are robbed of the opportunities that define a quality life: good jobs, safe housing, satisfactory health care, and

affilitiation with a diverse group of people.

People in society has learned and adopted the old idea that having a mental illness is like being cursed, or having some type of

contagious disease. This makes people label that group of people which makes people in that group believe they are what they are

being called. No matter where the stigma is coming from it can decrease with education. This can help society to see people as people

and not a label. As a human service worker the writer would take time to educate my clients about their condition and how people in

society will say hurful things about them out of ignorance. Teach them different techniques to use to overlook and be better than the

people who are being ignorant. Helping them to realize they are just as importantas anyone else in the world. Getting the clients to

realize that they can’t control what other people think say or do, but they do have control over how they react to it. This is a good start

to help the clients to stay focused and motivated on their process of change.

Reference:

American Psychiatric Association, (2020). Stigma,prejudice, and discrimination against people with mental illness.

www.psychiatry.org

Corrigan, P. & Watson, A., (2002). Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Kevin S

Stigma, in any sense, has a negative connotation. Stigma is inevitably linked to people suffering from psychological disorders. It’s a label that may put people in the vicious circle of considering them as different from others. Some people, due to their ability, may resist stigma. However, many others maystart considering themselves as defective. This thinking may worsen their condition, and hence, tends to isolate them from mainstream society. Isolation and perceived negativity may lead to the development of other related health issues like anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, etc (Whitbourne, 2020).

Unfortunately, stigma is still prevalent in today’s society. People with stigmatic attitudes often fail to understand the adverse impacts of psychological disorders. These impacts may be social discomfort, bullying, prejudice, and discrimination in various spheres of life (Young, Goldberg, Struthers, McCann, & Phills, 2019). The issue perpetuates because public stigma typically leads to self-stigma, wherein the patient feels stigmatic and ashamed from within because of hardships and sufferings. Many people with psychological disorders are connotated as violent and dangerous (Whitbourne, 2020). Such perceptions are further escalated by negative mass media representations. Myths and information presented with inaccuracies could perpetuate stigmatic attitudes among people. For instance, many movies depictvillains as mentally ill people. Such portrayals lead to social discrimination towards people having psychological disorders (Young, Goldberg, Struthers, McCann, & Phills, 2019). It is also furthered by language and humor that portray disorder in a negative light. This cumulatively develops hatred and social discrimination towards individuals having psychological disorders. As a result, they are not given equal importance at workplaces and other spheres. Thus, stigma is an unacceptable addition to the suffering of people.

Lack of awareness evokes uneducated people to make fun of sensitive issues. Hence, the need of the hour is to make people aware and increase educational resources. Also, one should not spread myths about the disorders. A human service professional can play a critical role in mitigating instances of public and self-stigma. It requires working collaboratively with organizations like National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI) that provide crucial support and educational resources (Ahmedani, 2011). Additionally, it is imperative to voice out concerns and debunk the myths revolving around mental illness. For instance, one can tell others that schizophrenic people are not usually violent. The rights of affected people must be supported and advocated. Counselors can help such people to avoid self-stigma by providing mental health literacy and guiding them to understand the disorders and their related effects (Whitbourne, 2020). Clients must be encouraged to openly discuss any negative feelings if they possess. People who pass disgracing remarks about mentally ill patients must be treated with a no-tolerance policy. Eventually, it can be combated with increased awareness and education.

References

Ahmedani, B. K. (2011). Mental health stigma: society, individuals, and the profession. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, 8(2), 4-16.

Whitbourne, S. K. (2020). Abnormal psychology: Clinical perspectives on psychological disorders (9th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Young, R. E., Goldberg, J. O., Struthers, C. W., McCann, D., & Phills, C. E. (2019). The subtle side of stigma: Understanding and reducing mental illness stigma from a contemporary prejudice perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 75(3), 943–971.

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