I’m stuck on a Social Science question and need an explanation.
Critical Thinking #2
“Analyzing Family Structure”
After reviewing chapter 4, you are to address the topics below based from the information in chapter 4. “Social Development in Infancy and Childhood”
APA formatting required
children’s lives are centered initially within their families, the
family environment becomes the primary agent of socialization” (Zastrow,
Kirst-Ashman, and Hessenauer. pg. 161).
“As children become
socialized, they learn and assimilate various behaviors. Because
learning is a complicated process, sometimes the behaviors they learn
are not those that their parents would prefer. Parents have various ways
of responding to a child’s behavior. At any point, an individual can
follow alternate plans of action. For each alternative, there are
consequences. The critical task is to evaluate each alternative and
select the one with the most advantageous results.” (Zastrow,
Kirst-Ashman, and Hessenauer. pg. 182).
What you do…
APA critical thinking assignment requires you to interview a family and
gather information that addresses particular topics. This family can be
your own, or you may select another family to interview.
Review chapter 4 to ensure your understanding of topic information
boundaries, feedback, modeling, reinforcement, shaping behavior,
tokens, time-out, etc.….) Do not overlook growth span and how age should
influence appropriate strategies. (1 point)
order to understand family functioning, it’s helpful to view the family
within a systems perspective. Systems theory helps to conceptualize how
a family works” (pg. 165).
Think about this…
have described three primary models for thinking about how economic
factors influence families: the family stress model, the investment
model, and the interactionist model. Research on the family stress model
goes back to the 1930s, Conger said, and has since been well replicated
using many samples from diverse backgrounds. It is based on evidence
from both human and animal studies that punishing experiences, such as
economic pressure,1exacerbate negative affect, which can take many forms, such as despondency, depression, anger, or aggression (Berkowitz, 1969).
These sorts of emotions can disrupt family relationships. The effect of
the hardship depends on the way it affects daily life—in other words,
the emotional response of the family and the individual are what
determines the psychological effect of the event. When parents become
depressed, angry, and sullen with one another and have increased
conflict, the result is often harsh and inconsistent parenting or
withdrawal. For adolescents, that can mean increases in risky behavior
and less development of the sorts of competencies that protect them from
those risks. Conger observed that other sorts of distress may also
affect families in the same way. That is, when stress and challenge are
high for parents, they generally have an increase in emotional and
behavioral problems, which in turn affect family functioning and
increase risks for children.
Many social risk factors have been
shown to increase the likelihood that adolescents will engage in risk
behaviors as well as to disrupt parenting and family processes. Thus,
parenting and family processes are the most common targets of
interventions for families experiencing adversity, such as economic
hardship; parental divorce, death, or mental illness; or parental
Prevention researchers distinguish among
universal interventions (delivered to all members of a population),
selective interventions (delivered to segments of a population
identified as being at high risk for a particular outcome) and indicated
interventions (delivered to individuals already showing signs of a
particular risk). Some interventions operate across these levels,
depending on need and risk. Interventions may also focus on a range of
ages. Those that focus on young children tend to have comparatively
stronger effects, Gonzales observed, because younger children are more
malleable. It is often possible to have broader impact on a range of
risks with early intervention. Home visits to new mothers, designed to
instill positive parent-child interactions from the beginning, is an
early intervention that has shown promise. Effects for this approach
include reduced physical abuse, aggression, and harsh parenting, as well
as reduced antisocial behavior (a precursor to many problem behaviors)
in children. The effects are strongest for families in the greatest
adversity. Research to document the long-term effects on adolescent
behavior, however, has been limited”.
Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee on the Science of Adolescence. Washington(DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.The Influence of Environment Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53409/
Read: “Macro Systems, Families, and the Pursuit of Social and Economic Justice”, page 164.
noted in the previous article, as well as in chapter 4, families face
challenges for a multitude of reasons that can be associated with
internal, as well as external factors. External factors have the power
to influence a family’s internal structure and recognition of such
factors can fuel both positive and negative outcomes. Prevention methods
are strategies in place that will assist with preventing a negative
outcome. Intervention strategies are in place to assist with the
How the family that you are
working with has been positively or negatively impacted by social and/or
economic factors discussed in this article, or in the section titled
“Macro Systems, Families, and the Pursuit of Social and Economic
Justice”, page 164.
You must explain the situation and the positive or negative outcome. (2 points)
You need to be aware that…
You will have several topics to address in this APA formatted assignment.
You are to use the book as one reference, but may incorporate other references as well.
The title and reference pages must be APA and subtitles are required.
APA formatting examples and guidelines are provided in Module #3.
The interview submission should be no less than two pages. (Excluding APA title and reference pages.)
Title page not APA – .50 deduction
Reference page not APA – .50 deduction
Less than at least two pages – 1-point deduction for every page short.
Grammatical errors. – .5 deduction per every 3 (Contractions are grammatical errors in this course.)
Late = 1-point deduction per day.
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