Can you help me understand this Psychology question?
The Present Situation & Creating a Change Plan
Answer each set of questions below. Please number your answers to correspond to each numbered question set below, and please write complete sentences. Your responses will be graded for quality and thoroughness in response to each question (at least 2 sentences per question) and communicating clearly that you understand the learning principles in these questions. Revisit M 4.3 readings and videos, as well as your notes and slides to help you work on this.
The Present Situation: Identifying learning principles in your current behavior
Creating Your Plan for Change
4. The new behavior is the goal behavior change, or the habit you want to develop to replace the old, problem behavior. Remember, one cannot merely stop doing something; something different is happening in the old behavior’s place. If your plan is to “just stop” doing the problem behavior, the change is not as likely to last. For example, someone stopping overeating will not stop eating entirely as a healthy new behavior; he or she will eat differently perhaps by portioning meals smaller on the plate (new behavior) or changing from eating several times per day to three times per day on a schedule (new behavior). Describe the new behavior that will replace the old, and remember to choose a new behavior that is S.M.A.R.T. (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-Limited). What will you do instead of the problem behavior?
5. Conditioning new stimuli: Objects or events you plan to associate with the new behavior to help it become established. For example, someone trying to quit drinking caffeine in the afternoon may set a timer for 2:00pm to remind her/him to fill up their water bottle and take a brisk walk (associating afternoons with new behaviors that will help reduce afternoon fatigue in place of coffee). What new conditioned stimuli will you train yourself to associate with the new behavior, and how?
6. The reinforcements for the new behavior: These need to be both immediate and long range. Plan specific, positive reinforcements and set specific times when they will be received. For example, someone trying to quit smoking may reward him/herself at the end of each day that they successfully chewed gum or called a friend instead of smoking by eating one small piece of candy (positive reinforcement). At the end of one month with no cigarettes, she/he might purchase something equivalent to the value of the cigarettes they did not buy. How will you be rewarded for the new behavior?
7. Integrating Biological, Cognitive, or Developmental factors: So far we have discussed some of the biological, cognitive, and developmental factors that shape human psychology. Identify and describe at least one biological, cognitive, or developmental key term from Modules 2, 3, or 4 that may impact (support or hinder) your success in changing the new behavior.
8. Road Blocks: With any behavioral change there are likely to be obstacles that have the potential to interfere with success, but these obstacles will be easier to overcome if you prepare for them ahead of time. For example, someone who wants to get more sleep, but tends to stay up very late with their roommate may plan to tell his roommate that he is working on this change and ask for their support. What are some potential obstacles (which could come from answer 7), and how do you plan to overcome them?
Now that we have learned about some of the major theories of development across the lifespan, let’s drill down and focus on development within adolescence and emerging adulthood. Continue to keep thinking about the various theories of cognitive, social, and personality development as you proceed with the required readings and videos. Rely on your knowledge of development to help you explain behavior and mental processes during these two important stages of life.
Required Readings and Videos
Video 1: A Crash Course in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood (runtime 10:14)
Reading 1: Adolescent development
Lansford, J. (2020). Adolescent development. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF publishers. Retrieved from http://noba.to/btay62sn (Links to an external site.)
Reading 2: Emerging adulthood
Arnett, J. J. (2020). Emerging adulthood. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF publishers. Retrieved from http://noba.to/3vtfyajs
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